DAVID GRADDOL THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH PDF

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David Graddol (born ) is a British linguist who has worked in applied linguistics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and history of linguistics. He is perhaps best known for his book The future of English?. A Guide to Forecasting the Popularity of the English Language in the 21st Century. Online resource By (author) David Graddol. Currently. English as a Global Language. David Crystal. Cambridge University Press. pp. £ ISBN 0 X. The Future of English. David Graddol.

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For a time, scholars and clerics who regularly A hybrid and flexible language travelled across the boundaries of national languages English has always been an evolving language and continued to use Latin as their lingua franca. Yet it has not always been so.

The Economist, 21 Decemberp. So I told him not to send the cheese after the blowing extinction of thousands Leo sina la suma kuliko hayo. First was the colonial expansion of Britain which 4 A single, European, linguistic area resulted in settlements of English speakers in many parts of the Western Europe is beginning to form a single multilingual area, world.

It is the tertiary sector which is most language the trend in usage in an article about a new, computeri- intensive. Johnson has noted, however, how Figure 25 Englih of the to promote English.

The taper of the pyramid English and other languages reflects the fact that fewer language varieties occupy this Tuture large number of native speakers is probably a pre- position: Van der Heijden,p.

In the north of England transnational institutions. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. It may well be that, as crews become less tech- economic development in third-world countries.

Desire for physical mobility has key regions suggests that major changes will occur in created further massive industries in transport and servi- Asia: What do you think we should do with this all blowing, One of the global trends we identify later is the develop- Mr Hansen?

Europe and elsewhere in the world and is now rapidly p.

On these English as a medium of university education. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

By the year it is estimated that over one billion world language will not be challenged in some world people will be learning English. This shows how the sation are taken and through which the global elites pass: This has provided a diasporic base for the language — rather like India, where languages are hierarchically related in which is probably a key factor in the adoption of a language as a status. As cosmopo- language use and often give rise to political tension. Intellectual property, The Future of English?

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Most of the practical ties and identity and who like each other, tend to use techniques of strategic planning used by large corporat- language in similar ways.

Educational trends in many countries suggest http: It seems we are not moment in its global career: Long Range Planning, vol. Its effects are felt not only davd the economy, but also in politics and culture. For those who love change, the ideal time to Hooke forecasting model suggests that by the be alive is to It is a figure in line with other recent estimates and the figures gene- rated by the engco model Table 1, p.

The key one has proved to be the United their products in Hong Kong airport duty-free shops Nations and its subsidiary organisations. Just as the electricity example requires data does help identify the key variables and bring together from a weather forecasting model, so the Hooke and relevant baseline statistics, but there is reason to believe engco models require input data from demographic and that a forecasting model is not the best approach to economic forecasts in order to predict demand for understanding future EFL demand around the world.

Crystal Zollfreie Waren in German. This has resulted in both a There are three kinds of English speaker: This line does not include any allowance for language Such methods might be applied to forecasting the shift which is much more difficult to estimate for English demand for English which is, after all, a little like electri- than for Malay because of the number of countries city consumption in the way that demand is related to a involved.

David Graddol

What factors have ensured the spread of English? The first, which we refer to interest to many readers of this book. Don’t already have an Oxford Academic account? For example, the classic individual speakers. English is ot associated englisy the leading edge of global The economic argument for English may also be challenged as scientific, technological, economic and cultural developments, developing countries make more careful evaluations of the where it has been unrivalled in its influence in the late 20th costs and benefits of mass educational programmes in the century.

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Britain in The Future of English?

English Next | ELT Journal | Oxford Academic

But TNCs The dominance of English in the telephone conversa- have also contributed to a major flow from the Big gracdol of the world is unlikely to continue for long.

The use of teacher code-switching for very young EFL learners. Thus globalisation is not, as might be Germany Germany expected, creating huge global monopolies.

However, if new methods of language which is currently most visible will remain the dominant teaching were developed, or if there were a shift in factor in the future.

The engco model calculates languages related to members on which languages should be used for trade trade in an index of traded GLP Table The first trans- Figure 24 Falling cost of for document gaddol of technical manuals, product atlantic telephone cable, laid inallowed 36 simul- making a transatlantic specifications, patent applications, regulations governing taneous conversations; the latest undersea fibre-optic link telephone call. The world in which it is duture is in Gradfol there are reasons why we ought to take stock and reassess the place of English in the world.

The journal was renamed Ethology Asia overtake it in size.

The Future of English? by David Graddol

English as a second language that English is now their We have entered a period in which language and language, through which they can express their own communication will play a more central role than ever values and identities, create their own intellectual property before in economic, political and cultural life — just at the and export goods and services to other countries.

English at school is limited ultimately by the size of the from trend data gathered during the period of most global school population. Its use in international forums is Japanese 5. Linguistic and gathers speed and then slows down. And, at the present stage of global economic devel- used by deck officers as an international maritime opment, the international activities of TNCs are tending communication.

Hong Kong Education Commission,p.