Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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Students were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest. The One Dollar condition is higher than the other two. Theory of Reasoned Action. A laboratory experiment was designed festniger test these derivations.

As noted earlier, this is often very difficult, so people frequently employ a variety of mental maneuvers. This hypothetical stress brings the subject to intrinsically believe that the activity is indeed interesting and enjoyable. Five S s three in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition indicated in the interview that they were suspicious about having been paid to tell the girl the experiment was fun and suspected that that was the real purpose of the experiment.

The third asks whether that subject finds the activity important, again using the scale of 0 to Green York University, Toronto, Ontario. Take it with you wherever you go.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

The results, according to the researchers, display the cognitive dissonance phenomenon. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. The subject was then taken into the secretary’s room where he was expected to converse with this “next subject” with the cadlsmith of attempting to get across the points that he had read on the sheet of paper headed “For Group B. Retrieved Dec 21, from Explorable. Participants in the high-dissonance condition chose between a highly desirable product and one rated just 1 point lower on the 8-point scale.

The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58 2 Because of the desirability of investigating this possible alternative explanation, we recorded on a tape recorder the conversation between each S and the girl.

Forced compliance theory

The students will be interviewed after participating in the experiment and were encouraged to be completely honest in these interviews.


I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. Because they were paid different amounts of money for their behavior, they were predicted to, and did, resolve the dissonance in different ways. There remain, for analysis, 20 S s in each of the thee conditions. Views Read Edit View history. In the ‘mild embarrassment’ condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like ‘virgin’ and ‘prostitute.

Cognitive dissonance

carlsmkth This was rated in the same way as festingfr the content before the remark. Three S s one in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition refused to take the money and refused to be hired. Variables included multiple levels of commitment. All experimental S s in both One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions were asked, after this explanation, to return the money they had [p. The ratings were of course done in ignorance of which condition each S was in.

The interviewer said yes, the E shook hands with the Ssaid good-bye, and left. Both alternatives have their good points and bad points.

The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Languages Magyar Edit links. It was explained to fesstinger that the Department of Psychology is conducting the study and they are therefore required to serve in the experiments.

When they were asked to lie about how they truly feel about the task, they force themselves to feel what they were induced to feel and express.

195 While it is true that the experiment took place in the 50s, the results are still being recognized up to this date. In other words, they were more likely than participants in the other two conditions to increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and to decrease the attractiveness of the unchosen alternative.

Specifically, subjects were asked to put spools onto and then off the try with the use of only one hand for half an hour, and then for the next half hour, turn square pegs clockwise in quarter turns, and then start all over wnd once the whole cycle’s been finished for festinfer 48 square pegs.

The subject was then told that the experimenter ‘thought’ that the next “Group B” subject actually another associate of the experimenter was female and was waiting to be given the positive introduction to the tasks ahead.

Highly anxious people are more likely to do so. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59 2 Many people seem able to cope with considerable dissonance and not experience the tensions the theory predicts. For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area of the country, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family. Forced compliance theory is being used as a mechanism to help aid in projections of cognitive dissonance theory.


This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency. Why this might have been the case is, of course, not immediately apparent. His task was to turn each peg a quarter turn clockwise, then another quarter turn, and so on. One way in which the dissonance can be reduced is for the person to change his private opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has said.

The experimenter again brought up the possibility of someone from Introductory Psychology wanting to interview the subject.

We would also like to acknowledge the help of Ruth Smith and Marilyn M. These was another group of subjects – “Group B”, however, who were introduced to the tasks by festimger associate of the experimenter. With no further introduction or explanation the S was shown the first task, which involved putting 12 spools onto a tray, emptying the tray, refilling ccarlsmith with spools, and so on.

In summary, this study concluded that if an individual performs an action that goes against what they initially believe, the belief will typically change. Is it a perception as ‘cognitive’ suggestsor a feeling, or a feeling about a perception?

Forced compliance theory – Wikipedia

One S in the One Dollar conditionimmediately after having talked to the girl, demanded her phone number saying he would call her and explain things, and also told the Festiinger he wanted to wait until she was finished so he could tell her about it. The E then took the S into the secretary’s office where he had previously waited and where the next S was waiting. Ashmore and Collins conducted an experiment called “Studies in Forced Compliance: Method Female students volunteered to take part in a discussion on the psychology of sex.